Reference Models

06.05.13

Reference Models

3D Systems is uniquely suited to work with researchers interested in mining their CT/CBCT/MRI medical imaging data for anatomical information. One innovative use of these tools involves creation of normative datasets for education and treatment planning. Our work to date in this area has been focused on the cranium with pediatric and adult reference models, in addition to a library of craniofacial anomalies.

Craniofacial Model Skull Library™

N.T.S.

 

N.T.S.™ jr

 



 

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03.20.13

Craniofacial Model Skull Library™

The Craniofacial Model Skull Library™ was created by selecting diagnosis-specific 3D CT datasets from the craniofacial deformities imaging archive established by Drs. Jeffery L. Marsh and Michael W. Vannier (maintained by Dr. Marsh) from 1983-2003 in St. Louis. Over 2000 CT scans were reviewed by Dr. Marsh and Dr. Chad Perlyn, with technical assistance from Mr. Dan Govier, to identify those scans with the most characteristic dysmorphology of the particular congenital anomaly prior to any intervention. Patients or their legal representatives consented to use of the CT data and clinical information for educational purposes for both health care professionals and patients and their families (Human Studies Committee approval was assisted by Dr. Alex Kane). Once representative CT datasets were selected, life-size replica models were produced using the process of stereolithography. The Craniofacial Model Skull Library™ is now available to all interested individuals and centers. The set has been made available exclusively through 3D Systems who has provided design and technical assistance for the project. The cost of the set is $3995 (plus shipping), which includes the set of 16 skull models and a quality, wooden display case.

 

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03.20.13

N.T.S.™ jr (Normocephalic Templating System: 11-Month-Old Infant Cranium)

Restoring normal cranial form to an infant undergoing surgery for craniosynostosis or another syndromal condition is often very difficult, even in the hands of an experienced surgeon. Existing templating tools for restoring the frontal bone are cumbersome, and, in many surgeons' hands, have limited utility. A scientifically normative model of an 11-month-old cranium was developed to assist in templating for surgeries involving the infant cranial vault. The normative dataset was developed by researchers at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) after averaging more than 100 infant CT scans.1 The result is a normative model clinically useful for vault reconstruction cases for infants 8 to 12 months of age.2 The digital skull was then transformed into a physical, titanium alloy model using the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technique. N.T.S.™ jr is available exclusively through 3D Systems.

1Saber N, Phillips J, Looi T, Usmani Z, Burge J, Drake J, Kim P: Generation of normative pediatric skull models for use in cranial vault remodeling procedures. Childs Nerv Syst 28: 405-410, 2012
2Burge J, Saber N, Looi T, French B, Usmani Z, Anooshiravani N, Kim P, Forrest C, Phillips J: Application of CAD/CAM prefabricated age-matched templates in cranio-orbital remodeling in craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg 22: 1810-1813, 2011

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03.20.13

N.T.S.™ ♂ (Normocephalic Templating System: Adult Male Cranium and Mandible)

Severe maxillofacial trauma presents a daunting task for both the novice and experienced surgeon. Maxillofacial trauma such as pan-facial injuries, where standard landmarks have been lost, make it difficult to return the maxillofacial skeleton to its pre-existing form. Most practicing surgeons treating these injuries could benefit from a reliable and reusable solution for templating to aid in the treatment of severe maxillofacial trauma. 3D Systems has developed an anthropometrically normal, reusable titanium alloy skull to accomplish just this. Titanium was the material of choice based on its biocompatibility, thermal stability with repeat sterilization and its stability during repeated bending of titanium fixation plates. Use of an anthropometrically normal titanium skull is an excellent surgical adjunct in the primary management of severe maxillofacial trauma. The skull has been used in cases of pan-facial injuries, in addition to severe fractures of the frontal sinus, orbit, zygomatic-maxillary complex and edentulous maxilla. Using the titanium skull as a template for plate bending resulted in less manipulation of plates and therefore a biomechanically stronger fixation.1 In many cases, a postoperative CT was obtained, revealing excellent bony reduction and symmetry.2

1DeLong B, Weimer K, Press S: Development of an anthropometric skull for use in severe maxillofacial trauma reconstruction. AAOMS 94th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA 2012.
2Lewallen J, Frederick J, Press S: Modifications of a halo-supported external fixator as an adjunct to complex maxillofacial trauma: a report of 10 cases. J Maxillofac Trauma 1:2-12, 2012.

N.T.S.™ ♂ Development

A combination of Steiner and COGS analyses were used to develop a set of normative values and measurements on both cephalometric and AP radiographs of a late-twenties white male. Computed tomography (CT) data with 0.4mm spatial resolution was obtained of the maxillofacial skeleton from this generally normal patient. A three-dimensional digital model of the facial skeleton was reconstructed. In an interactive planning conference between the surgeons and the engineers, a 3D model of the skeleton was osteotomized and repositioned to achieve the normal values and measurements determined by the Steiner and COGS analyses. Once normalized, the skull was then perfected to finalize dimensions, morphology and aesthetics. The digital skull was then transformed into a physical, titanium alloy model using the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technique. N.T.S.™ ♂ was developed in conjunction with Brent DeLong, DDS and Steven Press, DDS and is available exclusively through 3D Systems.

 

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3D Systems Healthcare 5381 South Alkire Circle, Littleton, Colorado 80127 USA | Toll Free (U.S./Canada): 1.844.643.1001 | Phone: +1.720.643.1001 | Fax: +1.720.643.1009